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Causes of coral degradation
  General information
  Climate change
  Vessel groundings
  Invasive species
  Algal blooms
  Coral diseases
Coral reproduction
Coral restoration and stewardship of coral reefs

Useful Links and References

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General information

Bruno JF, Selig ER. Regional Decline of Coral Cover in the Indo-Pacific: Timing, Extent, and Subregional Comparisons. PLoS ONE. 2007;2: e711. pmid:17684557.

Burkepile, D., and Ladd, M.C. (6 April 2018), Coral reefs are in crisis – but scientists are finding effective ways to restore them, The Conversation.

De'ath, G., Fabricius, K. E., Sweatman, H. & Puotinen, M. (2012). The 27-year decline of coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef and its causes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, 109 (44), 17995-17999.

Del Bello, L. (1 January 2018), Coral is Dying Globally. But We Can Save Some Reefs From Total Destruction?, Futurism.com.

World Resources Institute (WRI)(February 2011), Reefs at Risk Revisited, Burke, L., Reytar, K., Spalding, M., and Perry, A.

Climate change and coral reef degradation

Baker AC, Glynn PW, Riegl B. Climate change and coral reef bleaching: An ecological assessment of long-term impacts, recovery trends and future outlook. Estuar Coast Shelf S. 2008;80: 435—471.

Hocevar, J. (4 April 2016), What's Killing Coral Reefs? And How Can We Stop It?, Greenpeace.

Hughes TP, Anderson KD, Connolly SR, Heron SF, Kerry JT, Lough JM, et al. Spatial and temporal patterns of mass bleaching of corals in the Anthropocene. Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science; 2018;359: 80—83. pmid:29302011.

Hughes TP, Kerry JT, Álvarez-Noriega M, Álvarez-Romero JG, Anderson KD, Baird AH, et al. Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals. Nature. 2017;543: 373—377. pmid:28300113.

Hughes TP, Kerry JT, Baird AH, Connolly SR, Chase TJ, Dietzel A, et al. Global warming impairs stock-recruitment dynamics of corals. Nature. 2019;568: 387—390. pmid:30944475

IPCC, 2018: Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty, Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, H.-O. Pörtner, D. Roberts, J. Skea, P.R. Shukla, A. Pirani, W. Moufouma-Okia, C. Péan, R. Pidcock, S. Connors, J.B.R. Matthews, Y. Chen, X. Zhou, M.I. Gomis, E. Lonnoy, T. Maycock, M. Tignor, and T. Waterfield (eds.)]. In Press.

IUCN (September 2016), Explaining Ocean Warming: Causes, scale, effects and consequences, Gland, Switzerland.

IUCN/USAID, Climate Change and Coral Reefs: Issues and Risks for the Maldives.

Johnson, M. E., C. Lustic, E. Bartels, I. B. Baums, D. S. Gilliam, L. Larson, D. Lirman, M. W. Miller, K. Nedimyer, S. Schopmeyer. 2011. Caribbean Acropora Restoration Guide: Best Practices for Propagation and Population Enhancement. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA.

Laffoley, D., Baxter, J.M., Turley, C. and Lagos, N.A., (editors). 2017. An introduction to ocean acidification: What it is, what we know, and what may happen. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 24 pp.

Marshall, P. and Schuttenberg, H., A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, Australia, 2006.

O'Brien, K. and L. Sygna. Responding to Climate Change: The Three Spheres of Transformation, In Proceedings of Transformation in a Changing Climate, 19-21 June 2013, Oslo, Norway. Universitetet i Oslo. ISBN 978-82-570-2000-2. Del 1.

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Chan, A. (17 July 2019), Sewage, Fertilizers Contribute To Coral Death, Study Finds, Tech Times.

Cho, R. Losing Our Coral Reefs, Earth Institute, Columbia University, 13 June 2011.

NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program, Land-Based Sources of Pollution

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Damage from vessel groundings

Baum, L., Coral Reef Destruction from Boat Anchors, Reef Life Restoration, 2 August 2017.

Lindahl U. Coral reef rehabilitation through transplantation of staghorn corals: effects of artificial stabilization and mechanical damages. Coral Reefs. 2003;22: 217—223.

Rogers, C. and Garrison, V. (2001), Ten Years After the Crime: Lasting Effects of Damage from a Cruise Ship Anchor on a Coral Reef in St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, Bulletin of Marine Science, 69(2): 793—803.

Sea Grant, Responsible Boating Protects Coral Reefs.

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Invasive species and coral reefs

Hawaii DLNR/Division of Aquatic Resources, Aquatic Invasive Species/Invasive Algae.

NOAA Fisheries, Impacts of Invasive Lionfish.

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Algal blooms

Bauman, A.G., J.A. Burt, D.A. Feary, E. Marquis, and P. Usseglio. 2010. Tropical harmful algal blooms: An emerging threat to coral reef communities? Marine Pollution Bulletin 60: 2117 — 2122.

Davies, E., Toxic algae rapidly kills coral: Harmful algal blooms have the potential to lay waste to coral Reefs, Ella Davies, Earth News reporter, BBC (8 October 2010).

Hawaii DLNR/Division of Aquatic Resources, Aquatic Invasive Species/Invasive Algae

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Coral diseases

National Ocean Service, NOAA, Coral Diseases / Corals Tutorial

Talbot, R. As Disease Ravages Coral Reefs, Scientists Scramble for Solutions, Ret Talbot, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale Environment 360 (10 January 2019).

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Coral reproduction

Harrison PL, Wallace CC, Dubinsky Z. Reproduction, dispersal and recruitment of scleractinian corals. Ecosystems of the world coral reefs. Elsevier, Amsterdam; 1990.

National Ocean Services, NOAA, How Do Corals Reproduce? Corals Tutorial.

Secore International, Coral reproduction.

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Coral resilience

Mora C, Graham NAJ, Nyström M. Ecological limitations to the resilience of coral reefs. Coral Reefs. Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 2016;35: 1271—1280.

Nyström, M., Folke, C. Spatial Resilience of Coral Reefs. Ecosystems 4, 406—417 (2001).

Reef Resilience Network, Resilience Based Management(RBM)

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Coral restoration and stewardship of coral reefs

Anthony K, Bay LK, Costanza R, Firn J, Gunn J, Harrison P, et al. New interventions are needed to save coral reefs. Nature Ecology & Evolution 2017 1:10. Nature Publishing Group; 2017;1: 1420—1422. pmid:29185526.

Bayraktarov, Elisa & Stewart-Sinclair, Phoebe & Brisbane, Shantala & Boström Einarsson, Lisa & Saunders, Megan & Lovelock, Catherine & Possingham, Hugh & Mumby, Peter & Wilson, Kerrie. (2019). Motivations, success and cost of coral reef restoration. Restoration Ecology. 27. 10.1111/rec.12977.

Boström-Einarsson L, Babcock RC, Bayraktarov E, Ceccarelli D, Cook N, Ferse SCA, et al. (2020) Coral restoration — A systematic review of current methods, successes, failures and future directions. PLoS ONE 15(1): e0226631.

Chamberland, V.F., Petersen, D., Guest, J.R. et al. New Seeding Approach Reduces Costs and Time to Outplant Sexually Propagated Corals for Reef Restoration. Sci Rep 7, 18076 (2017).

Edwards AJ, editor. Reef Rehabilitation Manual. St Lucia, Australia: Coral Reef Targeted Research \& Capacity Building for Management Program; 2010.

Fleischer, E. (5 December 2018), Scientist's accidental discovery makes coral grow 40x faster, BigThink.com.

Gillies CL, Fitzsimons JA, Branigan S, Hale L, Hancock B, Creighton C, et al. Scaling-up marine restoration efforts in Australia. Ecol Manag Restor. Wiley/Blackwell (10.1111); 2015;16: 84—85.

Gross, D., (12 December 2017), Plant 1,000,000 Corals.

Hein MY, Willis BL, Beeden R, Birtles A. The need for broader ecological and socioeconomic tools to evaluate the effectiveness of coral restoration programs. Restoration Ecology. Wiley/Blackwell (10.1111); 2017;25: 873—883.

Hesley, D., Burdeno, D., Drury, C., Schopmeyer, S., & Lirman, D. (2017). Citizen science benefits coral reef restoration activities. Journal for Nature Conservation, 40, 94-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2017.09.001.

Ladd MC, Miller MW, Hunt JH, Sharp WC, Burkepile DE. Harnessing ecological processes to facilitate coral restoration. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2018;16: 239—247.

Levy, J.S., Ripple, K.J., and Winters, R.S., (6 August 2018), Lessons learned for increased scalability for in situ coral restoration efforts, Coral Restoration Foundation.

Linden B, Rinkevich B. Creating stocks of young colonies from brooding coral larvae, amenable to active reef restoration. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. Elsevier; 2011;398: 40—46.

Lirman D, Schopmeyer S. Ecological solutions to reef degradation: optimizing coral reef restoration in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic. Toonen R, editor. PeerJ. 2016;4: e2597. pmid:27781176.

Marshall, P.A., Dowd, A.M., Luder, C., Maynard, J.A., Beeden, R. (2015). A Reef Manager's Guide to Fostering Community Stewardship. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

Mcdonald T, Jonson J, Dixon KW. National standards for the practice of ecological restoration in Australia. Restoration Ecology. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (10.1111); 2016;24: S4—S32.

Morin, R. (23 November 2014), A Lifesaving Transplant for Coral Reefs, Science Times, New York Times.

National Marine Fisheries Service. Recovery Plan for Elkhorn (Acropora palmata) and Staghorn (A. cervicornis) Corals. Silver Spring, MD; Mar, 2015 p. 167.

Queensland University of Technology, Reef RangerBot becomes 'LarvalBot' to spread coral babies, 1 November 2018.

Rinkevich B. Conservation of Coral Reefs through Active Restoration Measures: Recent Approaches and Last Decade Progress. Environmental Science & Technology. 2005;39: 4333—4342. pmid:16047765.

Rodgers KS, Lorance K, Richards Dona A, Stender Y, Lager C, Jokiel PL. Effectiveness of coral relocation as a mitigation strategy in Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i. Reimer J, editor. PeerJ. 2017;5: e3346. pmid:28560102.

Society for Ecological Restoration International Science & Policy Working Group. The SER International Primer on Ecological Restoration. Tucson: Society for Ecological Restoration. 2004.

Suggett DJ, Camp EF, Edmondson J, Boström-Einarsson L, Ramler V, Lohr K, et al. Optimizing return-on-effort for coral nursery and outplanting practices to aid restoration of the Great Barrier Reef. Restoration Ecology. Wiley Online Library; 2019;27: 683—693.

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